In the previous post we saw that the inhabitants of Tiahuanaco could have been in contact with the Anunnaki of Zecharia Sitchin. Since the Tiahuanaco culture still remains as one of the greatest enigmas in the history of Peru, there is plenty of room for Sitchin’s theory. As a matter of fact, some researchers say that we only know five percent of what originally was the Tiahuanaco capital, and no one has been able yet to fully decipher their iconography or determine the exact age of its main monuments. For conventional historians, Tiahuanaco is not older than 1,000 BC; for alternative historians, Tiahuanaco is older than 15,000 BC.
The case is even more complex when we consider that, according to some peruvian myths, the inhabitants of this culture originated the Inca culture. Following this alternative view of the history of the ancient cultures of Peru and Bolivia and the theories of Zecharia Sitchin, the universal deluge (around 11,000 BC), would have uncovered vast amounts of gold along the Andes mountain range.
Tiahuanaco, according to Sitchin, was not a mineral deposit but rather the metallurgical capital of the Americas:
“Nowhere else all around the lake is there such a level plateau. Nowhere else is there a nearby lagoon like body of water that connects with the rest of the lake, making waterborne transportation feasible. Nowhere else around the lake is there a site like this, with passes through the mountains in the three landward directions and by water northward. And nowhere else are the prized metals right at hand, gold and silver, and copper and tin. Tiahuanacu was there because it was the best place for it to be for what it was: the metallurgical capital of South America, of the New World.”
At that time, in Sitchin’s view, Tiauanaco was an Anunnaki facility for the mining and processing of the metals of America, mainly gold, which exploitation lasted roughly from 6,000 BC until 2,000 BC in the region.
When Anu, the Anunnaki leader, visited Tiahuanaco (around 4,000 BC), the region still had gold. But in little more than 2,000 years, the Anunnaki mined, practically, all the precious mineral deposits in this area.
The renowned explorer and archaeologist Arthur Posnansky (1873-1946 AD) has proven that gold, tin and bronze, in that particular order, were the first minerals to be mined in Tiahuanaco, and that is in accordance with Sitchin’s theory. After the gold was gone, Tiahuanaco became a center of tin production, which the Tiahuanaco inhabitants found in the same places where they mined gold.
But the story does not end here, the inhabitants of Tiahuanaco would have a leading role in the history of Peru.
Following Sitchin’s theories, centuries after the gold was gone, a new Anunnaki intervention, put again Tiahuanaco in the path of development, prosperity and, again…gold. This time in the peruvian lands of Cuzco, where they would create the largest empire in the southern hemisphere, the Incas.
The chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega (1539-1611 AD) writes about the legend of creation of the Incas. Garcilaso tell us that Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo, by order of his father the Sun God, emerged from the depths of Titicaca Lake (in Tiahuanaco) to look for suitable land to found their empire. The Sun God gave to Manco Capac and Mama Ocllo a golden rod and told them that wherever this rod would sink it would be the right place to build their empire and bring civilization to the inhabitants of those lands. After several attempts along their way, the rod sank into the Huanacaure hill in Cuzco. And that is the place where the couple finally settled and started the Inca civilization.
Some elements of this story, as the “golden rod” that marked the place where the empire have to be founded, could give us a clue about why most of the historians do not give greater historical weight to the myth collected by chronicler Garcilaso de la Vega. However, it is precisely this same “golden rod” that leads Zecharia Sitchin to propose another of his daring theories. Although, Sitchin prefers to call it a wand:
“What was the shape and purpose of this magical wand? One of the most thorough studies on the subject is Corona Incaica by Juan Larrea. Analyzing artifacts, legends, and pictorial depictions of Inca rulers, he concluded that it was an axe, an object called Yuari that when first given to Manco Capac was named Tupa-Yuari, Royal Axe. But was it a weapon or a tool? …… Thus was Andean civilization launched: by giving Andean Man an axe with which to mine the gods’ gold.”
Manco Capac according to chronicler Guaman Poma de Ayala (1535-1616 AD).
So, the Anunnaki appeared again and helped their former allies of Tiahuanaco in their search for land and metals?
The interesting approach of Sitchin opens the door to another question: is there a relationship between the Anunnaki, who lived among the Sumerians, and the cultures of the peruvian highlands?
The similarities between the language that the inhabitants of Tiahuanaco spoke, which is the Uro or Uru, and the capital of the Sumerians where the Anunnaki originally settled, which is called Uruk, are more than curious. The Bolivian scholar Emeterio Villamil de Rada (1804-1880 AD), found remarkable similarities between the Aymara language, that is nowadays spoken in the region of Tiahuanaco and its a kind of branch of the Uro language, and the Sumerian language.
Zecharia Sitchin also noticed these similarities:
“Our suggestion that Anaku in the place’s name (Tiahuanacu) stems from the Mesopotamian term which meant tin as the metal granted by the Anunnaki, invokes a direct link between Tiahuanacu and Lake Titicaca and the ancient Near East…The extent of Sumerian/Uru-rian presence in the Andes can be gleaned by such other imprints as the fact that uru means “day” in all the Andean languages, both in Aymara and Quechua, the same meaning (“daylight”) that it had in Mesopotamia. Such other Andean terms as uma/mayu for water, khun for red, kap for hand, enulienu for eye, makai for blow are so clearly of Mesopotamian origin that Pablo Patron (Nouvelles etudes sur les langues americaines) concluded that “it is clearly demonstrated that the Quechua and Aymara languages of indigenous Peru had a Sumerian-Assyrian origin.”
The resemblance between the reed canoes of Lake Titicaca and the ancient Egyptian and Sumerian boats is another indication of the connection between the Sumerians and the inhabitants of Tiahuanaco.
Another indication of the Sumerian presence in the Bolivian/Peruvian highlands is the controversial artifact known as the “Fuente Magna”. This stone bowl was found by some peasants about 80 km. from the city of La Paz, around 1958. This bowl has several inscriptions that are similar to the sumerian cuneiform writing and that still have not been fully explained in terms of their meaning and antiquity.
Dr. Alberto Mancini deciphered the inscriptions of the “Fuente Magna” using the same criteria that is used to decipher Sumerian writing. According to experts who have studied the vessel, this was probably made by Sumerians who settled in the Peruvian/Bolivian highlands around 2500 BC .
The Divulgers believe that according to the information presented in this two articles on Tiahuanaco, the origin of the Inca culture and their gods as well as their relationship with metals and their technological achievements should be regarded in the light of alternatives theories about the history of Peru as the one Sitchin proposes.
In the next post we will see what was the relationship between Sitchin’s Anunnaki and the great gold artisans of the ancient Peru: the Chimúes.
– Book IV of The Earth Chronicles: The Lost Realms. Zecharia Sitchin. 2007.
– Tiahuancu, The Cradle of the American Man. Arthur Posnansky. 1945.